Appl Note 106

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Application of Powder Diffraction for Study of Clinker and Cement



Clinker and cement phases often give a heavily overlapped peaks on powder data. Phase identification and particularly quantification is not simple. Quantitative analysis of clinker components is important, could be done by XRD.  Qunatitative XRD analysis of  free lime, CaO,  Portlandite, Ca(OH)2, and calcite, CaCO3. The uniqueness of X-ray Diffraction is the separation of these and other phases in the matrix. One cannot discount the importance of this difference in analyses, since the composition of CaO is the critical factor and not the other two component

Common Phases

Portland cement commonly contain the following phases Alite-C3S (69-71%), Belite-βC2S (7-14%), Aluminate C3A (0.2-2%) and Brownmillerite (Ferrite)-C4AF (3-7%), Periclase MgO, Gypsum CaSO4 2H2O

Detailed phase identification analysis often reveal many different cement clinkers show quite complicated phase mixtures: C3S triclinic, C3S-monoclinic, C3S superlattice, C3S-rhombohedral, β-C2S, a-C2S, C4AF, C3A cubic, C3A monoclinic, Periclase.

Cement, ceramic industries:

  • Phase analysis of clinker to determine strength and features of hardened cement stone.
  • Phase analysis in ceramic material. Determination of raw material, ceramics and refractories phase composition, as well as ready products.
  • Determination of coefficient of thermal expansion.
  • Analysis of technical clinker for content of certain phases.
  • Prediction of concrete strength index.
  • Determination of free lime content to control composition of raw dust and to maintain optimal temperature degree in kiln.

Sample Preparation

Phase Identification

Phase Quantification

Other Application Notes also available:


Note No



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