Appl Note 1023

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Application of Powder Diffraction in Geology



Earth's crust compostion - 95% igneous rock (or it's metamorphic equivalent) - e.g., basalt, granite, granitic gneiss, schist...

8 most abundant elements in crust = (99 weight % and approx. volume) O, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Na, K, Mg
Most common crustal minerals are:

- silicates - e.g., quartz SiO2
- aluminosilicates - e.g., K-feldspar (orthoclase) KAlSi3O8
- oxides - e.g., hematite Fe2O3

Total earth:
composition - 99% Fe, O, Si, Mg, Ni, S, Ca, Al

- difference due to core and mantle
Fe, Mg-silicates = mantle
S, Ni, Fe = core


Common Phases

Sample Preparation

Phase Identification

Phase Quantification

Other Application Notes are also available:


Note No



Link to ApplNote

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