Appl Note 108

Copyright XRD.US

Powder Diffraction of Corrosion Products

 

Introduction

Common Phases

Sample Preparation

Phase Identification

Phase Quantification

Other Application Notes also available:

 

Note No

Title

Author

Link to ApplNote

AN-101 Powder diffraction of Asbestos XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/asbestos.htm
AN-102 Powder diffraction of Catalysts XRD.US www.xrd.us/applnote/catalysts.htm
AN-103 Powder diffraction of Ceramics XRD.US www.xrd.us/applnote/ceramics.htm
AN-104 Powder diffraction of Chemicals XRD.US www.xrd.us/applnote/chemicals.htm
AN-105 Powder diffraction of Clays and clay minerals XRD.US www.xrd.us/applnote/clays.htm
AN-106 Powder diffraction of Clinker and cement XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/clinker and cement.htm
AN-107 Powder diffraction of Composite materials XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/composite materials.htm
AN-108 Powder diffraction of Corrosion products XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/corrosion products.htm
AN-109 Powder diffraction for Environmental Appl XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/environmental.htm
AN-1010 Powder diffraction of Fly ash XRD.US www.xrd.us/applnote/fly ash.htm
AN-1011 Powder diffraction of Forensics XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/forensics.htm
AN-1012 Powder diffraction of Industrial wastes XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/industrial wastes.htm
AN-1013 Powder diffraction of Metals and alloys XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/metals and alloys.htm
AN-1014 Powder diffraction for  Mineral studies XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/minerals.htm
AN-1015 Powder diffraction for Mining XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/mining.htm
AN-1016 Powder diffraction of Nanomaterials XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/nanomaterials.htm
AN-1017 Powder diffraction for Oil drilling XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/oil drilling.htm
AN-1018 Powder diffraction in Patent process XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/patent infringment.htm
AN-1019 Powder diffraction of Pharmaceuticals XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/pharmaceuticals.htm
AN-1020 Powder diffraction of Plastics, fibers & textiles XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/plastic fiber textile.htm
AN-1021 Powder diffraction of Raw materials XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/raw materials.htm
AN-1022 Powder diffraction of Refractory materials XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/refractory materials.htm
AN-1023 Powder diffraction of Rocks XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/rocks.htm
AN-1024 Powder diffraction of Semiconductors XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/semiconductors.htm
AN-1025 Powder diffraction of Soils XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/soils.htm

 

Corrosion Analysis
by X-Ray Diffraction

X-ray diffraction (XRD) represents the method of choice for the analysis of corrosion products, as it is the only analysis method that readily provides information about the phase-composition of solid materials. For example, a mixture of Fe4O4 (magnetite), FeO(OH) (goethite) and Fe5O7(OH)x4H2O (ferrihydrite) can be identified and quantified as such, while other analysis methods will only reveal that the corrosion product is Fe-based. Furthermore, XRD can readily distinguish between different modifications of phases that have the same chemical formula. For example, goethite, lepidocrocite, feroxyhyte and akaganeite can be told apart, even though they all have the chemical formula FeO(OH).

The identification of phase compositions (as opposed to elemental compositions) is crucial for the understanding of  corrosion processes. Different phases build under different conditions and in different environments. Information about the chemical phases is not only helpful to explain the corrosion process, but can help to locate the origin of corrosion in a facility and, at the same time, provide solutions to the problem. For example, the origin of corrosive scale material in the pipe system of a power plant can be narrowed down, if the corrosive material was identified by XRD as a phase that only builds above a certain temperature and at a specific pH. The process settings of the respective facility section can then be adjusted accordingly to suppress the buildup of the corrosive scale material.

 

 

 

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