Appl Note 108

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Powder Diffraction of Corrosion Products



Common Phases

Sample Preparation

Phase Identification

Phase Quantification

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AN-102 Powder diffraction of Catalysts XRD.US
AN-103 Powder diffraction of Ceramics XRD.US
AN-104 Powder diffraction of Chemicals XRD.US
AN-105 Powder diffraction of Clays and clay minerals XRD.US
AN-106 Powder diffraction of Clinker and cement XRD.US and cement.htm
AN-107 Powder diffraction of Composite materials XRD.US materials.htm
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AN-1011 Powder diffraction of Forensics XRD.US
AN-1012 Powder diffraction of Industrial wastes XRD.US wastes.htm
AN-1013 Powder diffraction of Metals and alloys XRD.US and alloys.htm
AN-1014 Powder diffraction for  Mineral studies XRD.US
AN-1015 Powder diffraction for Mining XRD.US
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AN-1018 Powder diffraction in Patent process XRD.US infringment.htm
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AN-1022 Powder diffraction of Refractory materials XRD.US materials.htm
AN-1023 Powder diffraction of Rocks XRD.US
AN-1024 Powder diffraction of Semiconductors XRD.US
AN-1025 Powder diffraction of Soils XRD.US


Corrosion Analysis
by X-Ray Diffraction

X-ray diffraction (XRD) represents the method of choice for the analysis of corrosion products, as it is the only analysis method that readily provides information about the phase-composition of solid materials. For example, a mixture of Fe4O4 (magnetite), FeO(OH) (goethite) and Fe5O7(OH)x4H2O (ferrihydrite) can be identified and quantified as such, while other analysis methods will only reveal that the corrosion product is Fe-based. Furthermore, XRD can readily distinguish between different modifications of phases that have the same chemical formula. For example, goethite, lepidocrocite, feroxyhyte and akaganeite can be told apart, even though they all have the chemical formula FeO(OH).

The identification of phase compositions (as opposed to elemental compositions) is crucial for the understanding of  corrosion processes. Different phases build under different conditions and in different environments. Information about the chemical phases is not only helpful to explain the corrosion process, but can help to locate the origin of corrosion in a facility and, at the same time, provide solutions to the problem. For example, the origin of corrosive scale material in the pipe system of a power plant can be narrowed down, if the corrosive material was identified by XRD as a phase that only builds above a certain temperature and at a specific pH. The process settings of the respective facility section can then be adjusted accordingly to suppress the buildup of the corrosive scale material.




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